Apo-lactoferrin (form of lactoferrin without iron) is more active than lactoferrin (up to 5 times more) as it binds to iron through the open form of apo-protein, thus allowing for an easier access of Fe3+ complex ions.
Lactoferrin is an iron-chelating protein involved in several biologic mechanisms..
It delivers an iron-transfer activity, it belongs to the family of transferrins and has been widely studied for its multiple healthy effects:
- Antioxidant activity
- It maintains the homeostasis of iron
- Antimicrobic activity
- Restores the intestinal microbiota
However, due its nature Apo-lactoferrin is unstable and is particularly sensitive to the proteolytic activity of pepsin in the gastric tract and to proteolytic hydrolysis in the bowel. This causes the protein denaturation, poor absorption and its inactivation. APOLact TDC, thanks to its modern technology of microencapsulation, overcomes the above problems and is the first advanced formulation that delivers the efficacy of the glycoprotein.
Clinical studies have shown that during digestion, the concentration of Apo-lactoferrin incorporated in the liposomes has remained absolutely unchanged over time and was not subject to hydrolysis caused by pepsin in the gastric tract, unlike what happens when the glycoprotein is ingested as is; this suggests that these prepared liposomes are statile and prevent pepsin-induced hydrolysis.
In the simulated intestinal fluid, encapsulated Apo-lactoferrin turned out to be sensitive to pancreatin induced hydrolysis, as shown by changes in the diameter and in the structure of the liposome membranes. The release of liposome-f ree fat acids during the simulated intestinal digestion revealed that phospholipids contained in liposomes are subject to partial hydrolysis due to pancreatic lipase. Encapsulation of oral liposomes prevents gastric degradation of the glycoprotein and reduces the speed of hydrolysis in intestinal conditions.